Surface stress change on a clean compared to functionalized gold coated cantilevers. Surface stress change pattern of the cantilever as a response to an applied square wave potential at +/− 200 mV with a 10 min period. The blue trace shows the response of a clean gold evaporated surface measuring a large surface stress change of σ = 350 mN/m. Upon functionalization with single-stranded oligonucleotide (red trace), the surface stress change decreases to σ = 80 mN/m. Covering the surface with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) (green trace) leads to a low surface stress change of σ = 40 mN/m.