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Table 1 Three different molecular beam sources, and a selection of their characteristics

From: Optimal beam sources for Stark decelerators in collision experiments: a tutorial review

  Opening Opening time Operating Operating Nozzle Pressure source
  mechanism FWHM (μs) voltage (V) current (A) diameter (mm) chamber (mbar)
General Valve solenoid 80 - 150 300 1 1.0 4 · 10 −5
Jordan Valve current loop 50 - 60 25 4000 0.5 2 · 10 −5
Nijmegen Pulsed Valve Lorentz force 15 - 25 10 - 15 400 - 1000 0.5 2 · 10 −6
  1. Pressure source chamber refers to the typical pressure in the source chamber in our experiments under operating conditions (10 Hz)