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Table 1 Expected steady-state temperatures of Ba + ions for the large N i limit after being immersed in a variety of gases with polarizability α, density ρ, and temperature T n

From: Sympathetic cooling of molecular ions with ultracold atoms

Gas α (a.u.) ρ (cm −3) T n T create T u T maintain
3He 1.38 1014 170 mK 10 K 2 K 300 mK
4He 1.38 1014 4 K 10 K
23Na 163 1012 100 μK 30 K 800 mK 200 μK
87Rb 319 1012 10 μK 30 K 800 mK 40 μK
40Ca 157 1010 4 mK 300 K
  1. T create(T maintain) is the temperature reached if the ions are initialized above (below) T u