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Fig. 1 | EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation

Fig. 1

From: Schlieren imaging: a powerful tool for atmospheric plasma diagnostic

Fig. 1

Diagrams of different schlieren instruments: Toepler’s lens-type system (a), simple “z-type” system (b), folded z-type systems with both non-parallel schlieren beams folded (c) and with the parallel beam folded twice (d), single-mirror, double-pass schlieren arrangement (e), Background-Oriented Schlieren (BOS) (f), focusing (lens-and-grid) schlieren system (g), direct shadowgraph system (h) and “focused shadowgraph” system (i). The individual components of these setups are described in detail in the text. List of the used abbreviations: B – background; BF - bandpass filter; BS – beamsplitter; C- camera; CG – cutoff grid; FL – Fresnel lens; FM1 – folding mirror 1; FM2 – folding mirror 2; g – defocusing distance; KE – knife-edge; L – lens; LS – light source; L1 -schlieren field lens 1; L2 - schlieren field lens 2; M – plane of camera focus; PM1 – parabolic mirror 1; PM2 – parabolic mirror 2; RL – relay lens; S – schlieren object (plasma); SG – source grid; SL – schlieren lens; SM – spherical mirror;x, y, z – Cartesian coordinates; Δy – ray displacement in y-direction; εy – refraction angle in y-direction

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