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Fig. 5 | EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation

Fig. 5

From: Sympathetic cooling of molecular ions with ultracold atoms

Fig. 5

Emergence of nonequilbrium dynamics in a hybrid atom-ion trap. a, Analytical heating and cooling rates for ions in a hybrid atom-ion trap. Three characteristic Regimes exist for different relative heating and cooling strengths as parameterized by N i and are characterized by the number and type of fixed points they exhibit. b, A qualitative description of the bifurcations as transitions between the three Regimes. In Regime II, the steady-state ion temperature is dependent upon the initial temperature, whereas only one steady-state temperature exists for the other Regimes

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